Can we address sustainable development and climate change at the same time? According to the World Meteorological Organization, in 2012, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere reached 140% of the pre-industrial figure of 280 ppm. The amount of carbon dioxide measured in Hawaii continued to increase to 387.15 ppm in October 2010, 388.92 ppm in October 2011, and 391.03 ppm in October 2012, and finally exceeded 400 ppm in May 2013. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, since record keeping began in 1895, 2012 was the hottest year in 48 states on the U.S. common border and was the ninth warmest record in the world.
The total amount of greenhouse gases emitted by mankind reaches 49.5 billion tons annually. Nature absorbs about half of that every year, but its absorption capacity continues to decrease, and the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere continues to increase.
According to the United Nations Environment Program's Green Economy Report, investing in 10 key areas related to low carbon and energy efficiency increases will help to achieve an efficient low-carbon green economy.
The annual economic loss from natural disasters is estimated at $1.58 trillion, nearly three times higher than $5257 billion 40 years ago.
Scientists are investigating how to install sun-blocking facilities in space, iron powder in the sea to suck carbon dioxide, remove underground carbon dioxide, and reuse carbon dioxide in power plants. In addition, methods for taxing carbon emissions, trade, overseas travel, urban congestion, and ecological footprint have been studied, and a plan has been proposed to utilize the collected taxes as an international fund for technology development. Taxes can also be used to bring attention to climate change to large public education activities through popular movies, television, music, games and contests.
Efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change should be integrated into one strategy. Without promoting sustainable development strategies, billions of people will not escape poverty and many civilizations will disappear.
According to the oil company Royal Dutch Shell, assuming major socio-economic trends are flowing as expected, global energy demand will need three times the level of 200 by 2050. They said it would require a combination of special measures to curb demand and production acceleration to meet this demand. The International Energy Agency said it would cost $ 38 trillion to reach global energy demand by 2035, and 90% of new demand would come from countries outside the OECD. Currently, China's per capita energy consumption is less than half that of the United States, but by 2035 it is expected to consume more than 70% more energy than the United States. The International Energy Agency estimates that it will cost $ 48 billion annually to enable electricity use and modern cooking worldwide.
The International Energy Agency estimates that global fossil fuel subsidies in 2011 increased $ 30 billion in 2010, by about 30%, to encourage inefficient and unsustainable energy use. This is more than six times the subsidy for renewable energy, and as a result, energy-related carbon dioxide emissions increased by 1.4% in 2012.
Over the past decade, coal has met 47 & of the new electricity demand. Without breakthroughs in technology and behavior change, by 2050, most of the world's energy demand will still be covered by fossil fuels. Therefore, large-scale carbon capture and reuse should be a top priority to reduce climate change. The method is to use carbon dioxide emitted from coal-fired thermal power plants for cultivation of microalgae used for biofuel or food production. By 2050, if 20-40% of the facilities have carbon capture and sequestration requirements, CO2 emissions could be reduced.
Global investment in new renewable energy fell 11% in 2012. Even so, it was still a successful year for the global clean energy sector. Investments are expanding geographically in markets established in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In early 2012, renewable energy sources covered 17% of the world's final energy consumption. This figure is more than a quarter of the world's power generation. China, the United States, Germany, Spain, Italy, India, and Japan are producing around 70% of non-hydroelectric renewable energy worldwide.
In spite of the Fukushima nuclear accident, the International Energy Agency predicts that nuclear power generation will grow 70% over the current generation by 2035. In addition, in the case of oil, the International Energy Agency estimates that if there is no factor that greatly affects oil production and demand, the daily output is expected to reach 90 million barrels from the current 8 million barrels to 2035.
Innovation is accelerating. The solar farm focuses on running the Stirling engine and generator by focusing the sun's light on top of the tower. Drilling a 2 to 5 km underground hot bar makes it possible to use geothermal energy in areas where traditional geothermal power generation was not available. Electricity is produced through waste heat from power plants, the human body, and microchips. Innovations in areas such as buildings with more energy than consumed, hydrogen production using solar heat, microbial fuel cells that produce electricity, low-energy nuclear reactions that enable nuclear fusion at room temperature, and compact fluorescent bulbs and light-emitting diodes that dramatically reduce energy Is being made. Unused midnight energy production can be supplied to electric and connected hybrid vehicles.
Japan has a plan to put the space solar power system in orbit by 2030, and China has set a goal to achieve it by 2040. Space-based solar energy systems will be able to meet the global demand for electricity indefinitely without the release of nuclear waste or greenhouse gases. Some say, however, that this is an expensive operation, and it would be unnecessary if other technological innovations were made.